[1] In most of the cases yield data are not recorded, but are obtained by dividing the production data by the data on area harvested. Since 1960, yields in sugar beet have more than doubled, rising from 30 tonnes to more than than 80 tonnes per hectare. Given that demand for animal-based foods is projected to grow by 70 percent by 2050 and that pastureland accounts for two thirds of agricultural land use, boosting pasture productivity is … Washington, DC: World Bank. The United Kingdom harvests about 7,707 kilograms of cereal per hectare. Although there are a few exceptions–notably across Sub-Saharan Africa, the continued increase in cereal yields across the world has been the major driver of total cereal production. |. Data from 1961 onwards is taken from FAOstat; database online here. 6.1. In 2018, the South American country's yield for this crop was estimated at 3.04 tons per hectare. Potato yields have also almost doubled, increasing from just over 20 tonnes in 1960 to more than 40 tonnes per hectare in 2014. There are a number of factors which are likely to have contributed to sustained yield gains: fertilizer application, irrigation, increased soil tillage, and improved farming practices. The UK barley yield has exceeded that seen in 2015 and now sits at 7.0 tonnes per hectare. 113. 6.0. Crop quality improvement Grass, hay and silage Chaff Yield - storing Crops - selling List of vehicles and machines All available vehicles Tractors and trucks Trailers and semi-trailers Harvesters and headers Machines for fieldwork Loaders Machines for grass and hay Baling technology Belt systems Forestry equipment Animal husbandry machines, vehicles Misc machines and tools The country with the highest value in the region is Belgium, with a value of 9,050.70. ’ on the chart.The crop production index (PIN) is the sum of crop commodities produced (after deductions of quantities used as seed and feed). DOI: 10.1111/j.1728-4457.2013.00561.x. Some countries, including Ethiopia, Nigeria and Algeria have followed the rest of the world in yield increases. The importance of crop production is related to harvested areas, returns per hectare (yields) and quantities produced. Online here.The original sources given by my source are Evenson and Gollin 2003 and FAO 2006a. The major staple crops in Nigeria are cassava, yam, maize, sorghum, rice and millet. Most Recent Year. Expansion of cereal production has followed very different paths in Sub-Saharan Africa and Asia. In Asia and sub-Saharan Africa, al… 67. It is weighted by the commodity prices. Cereal yield is measured as kilograms per hectare of harvested land. 8.8. Central America & the Caribbean This trade-off between land use for agriculture and yields is very clearly exemplified in a comparison between cereal production in Asia and Sub-Saharan Africa. 178. The idea for this chart is taken from Ausubel, Wernick, and Waggoner (2013).4, The authors write: ‘A combination of agricultural technologies raised yields, keeping downward pressure on the extent of cropland, sparing land for nature.Countering the global rise of population and affluence by parents and workers, consumers and farmers restrained the expansion of arable land by changing tastes and lifting yields. Most Recent Value. Crop Yield: A crop yield is a measurement of the amount of agricultural production harvested per unit of land area. Livestock production per hectare varies significantly from country to country and is lowest in the tropics. | However, a failure to increase agricultural productivity in many Sub-Saharan countries has led to large increases in land used for cereal production. China. Online here. For example, permanent pastures are quite different in nature and intensity in African countries and dry Middle Eastern countries. 6. values in 1961 are equal to 1.0. Most of a crop harvested near the end of a year will be used in the following year. In developing countries, a variety of harvesting methods are used in cereal cultivation, depending on the cost of labor, from small combines to hand tools such as the scythe or cradle. 36. 1.0. excl. Help us improve this site Help / … The 2018 sunflower crop was bountiful in other countries too. The FAO allocates production data to the calendar year in which the bulk of the harvest took place. TABLE 2: Biofuel yields for different feedstocks and countries. Our World In Data is a project of the Global Change Data Lab, a registered charity in England and Wales (Charity Number 1186433). Production depends on the nature of the soil, the amount of rainfall, irrigation, quality of seeds, and the techniques applied to promote growth. Factors such as the green revolution, has led to impressive progress in increasing cereals yields over the last few decades. Production data on cereals relate to crops harvested for dry grain only. According to the crop yield data placed before the House, India's rice yield was 2191 kg/hectare, while the global average stood at 3026 kg/hectare, while wheat is 2750 kg/hectare as against the world average yield of 3289 kg/hectare. Most Recent Value. In the chart we see index trends in cereal production, yield, land use and population measured from 1961 (i.e. If distributed equally, cereal production per person has increased despite a growing population. We will always indicate the original source of the data in our documentation, so you should always check the license of any such third-party data before use and redistribution. Maize yield, measured as kilograms per hectare of harvested land. North America South America The initial period of yield gains in the late 1930s-early 1940s coincides with the transition period of farmers from open-pollinated varieties to hybrids. Cassava, yam, cocoyam and maize are the major staple crops in the humid parts of the country, whereas maize, sorghum, millet, cowpea and groundnut are the major staple crops in the sub-humid and semi-arid parts. This ‘spared’ land amounts to 1.26 billion hectares in 2014– roughly equal to the area of Mexico and Europe combined. 70% less land was needed. Average wheat yield for the farms in 2013 to 2017 was 65.3 bushels per acre (4.39 metric tons per hectare). 1.9. Near East/North Africa. The FAO tries to impose standard definitions and reporting methods, but complete consistency across countries and over time is not possible. Africa China (People's Republic of), Soybean, 2019: 1.9 Tonnes/hectare China (People's Republic of), Rice, 2019: 4.9 Tonnes/hectare China (People's Republic of), Wheat, 2019: 5.6 Tonnes/hectare China (People's Republic of), Maize, 2019: 6.3 Tonnes/hectare. | Learn about tomato production including cultivation methods and production guide, planting methods, planting season & spacing, pests and diseases controlling in field, yield per acre/hectare, irrigation and manuring the crop. Limitations and Exceptions: Cereals production data relate to crops harvested for dry grain only. Help us do this work by making a donation. Nearly 640 million tons of rice are grown in Asia, representing 90% of global production. 1961 = 100). Chile. 9.5. 9. The data produced by third parties and made available by Our World in Data is subject to the license terms from the original third-party authors. In this visualisation, you can select/deselect which crops you wish to see and compare, and you can also view these trends across any country or region using the “change country” wheel. The darker the shade, the higher the value. 103. There are likely to be certain regional and seasonal differences in yield within a given country, however, reported average yields still provide a useful indication of changes in productivity over time and geographical region. Definition: Cereal yield, measured as kilograms per hectare of harvested land, includes wheat, rice, maize, barley, oats, rye, millet, sorghum, buckwheat, and mixed grains. Figure 1 illustrates average wheat yield per hectare for each typical farm. | Although yield is only a partial gauge of performance, it reflects the available production technology across farms. The statistics that are collected on agricultural products relate to more than 100 individual crop products. Colombia's crop yield for soybeans was forecasted to reach 3.58 metric tons per hectare by 2028. 6. 89. Crop harvested for hay or harvested green for food, feed, or silage and those used for grazing are excluded. Europe 0.6. Vol.40 no.1 Santiago Apr. Productivity gains between the 1950s and 1990s was rapid, growing 2-3 fold over this period. 3.9. Most Recent Year. Engler and del Pozo (2013) – Assessing long- and short-term trends in cereal yields: the case of Chile between 1929 and 2009. 134. Jesse H. Ausubel, Iddo K. Wernick, Paul E. Waggoner (2013) – Peak Farmland and the Prospect for Land Sparing. 48. TABLE 4: Voluntary and mandatory bioenergy targets for transport fuels in G8+5 countries. Production data on cereals relate to crops harvested for dry grain only. Thus, data on agricultural land in different climates may not be comparable. Add country The UN Food and Agricultural Organization (FAO) publish yield estimates across a range of crop commodities by country over this period. Information is collected for the area under cultivation (expressed in 1 000 hectares), the quantity harvested (expressed in 1 000 tonnes) and the yield (expressed in tonnes per hectare). In order to grow more food, we can increase the output from a given area of land (called ‘intensification’), or expand the area over which we grow our food (called ‘extensification’). Share of global habitable land needed for agriculture if everyone had the diet of... Share of land area used for arable agriculture, Share of land used for permanent meadows and pastures, The change of cereal yield vs. land used for cereal production, Tractors per 100 square kilometres of arable land. Browse by Country or Indicator. 244. 194. For many, changes in the arable land have been minimal (or have declined). For example, globally in 2014, the index value was 0.3; this means only 30% of the arable land area was needed to produce the same quantity of crops relative to 1961. Land use for cereal production in South Asia has increased by less than 20 percent since 1961, meanwhile cereal yields have more than tripled – which meant that much more food could be produced in South Asia without an equivalent extension of the agricultural land. 142. Yield in Russia is high at 1.45 tonnes per hectare. Most of our improvements in cereal production have arisen from improvements in yield. 84. This figure is second only to France in the EU. The country with the lowest value in the region is Cyprus, with a value of 2,009.10. 49. 71. 13.5% for wheat and barley, and 15.5% for maize. 115. Download to Excel (xls) Sub-Saharan Africa produces about 19 million tons and Latin America some 25 million tons. Crop production systems have evolved rapidly over the past century and have resulted in significantly increased crop yields, but have also created undesirable environmental side-effects such as soil degradation and erosion, pollution from chemical fertilizers and agrochemicals and a loss of bio-diversity. Statistical Concept and Methodology: A cereal is a grass cultivated for the edible components of their grain, composed of the endosperm, germ, and bran. Selected Countries and Economies. Millet and sorghum, which are grown as feed for livestock and poultry in Europe and North America, are used as food in Africa, Asia, and countries of the former Soviet Union. How have crop yields changed over the long-term? Most of a crop harvested near the end of a year will be used in the following year. The units by which the yield of a crop is usually measured today are kilograms per hectare or bushels per acre. 10. Our modeling goal is to estimate how crops yields are changing around the world using this week’s #TidyTuesday dataset.We can build many models for the country-crop combinations we are interested in. Middle East TABLE 3: Hypothetical potential for ethanol from principal cereal and sugar crops. This is in strong contrast to Sub-Saharan Africa where the area of land used for cereal production has more than doubled since 1961 and yields have only increased by 80 percent. … Tomato farming. This entry can be cited as: Our World in Data is free and accessible for everyone. Note: This page was last updated on December 28, 2019, Home | About | Search | Site Map | Blog | Indicadores en Español. The noticeable shrinkage in the extent of cropland as a function of the Crop Production index since 1990 provides encouragement that farmers will continue sparing land.’. Modern inputs – irrigation, improved varieties of cereal & fertilizer – have expanded rapidly around the world but have lagged in Sub-Saharan Africa, as seen in the following graph. Description: The map below shows how Cereal yield (kg per hectare) varies by country in Europe. Similarly to cereal yields, productivity gains in sugar beet and potatoes have been most impressive over the latter half of the 20th century. Long-term cereal yields in the United Kingdom were some 500 kg/ha in Medieval times, jumping to 2000 kg/ha in the Industrial Revolution, and jumping again to 8000 kg/ha in the Green Revolution . This progress, however, is not equal across all regions. This data can be viewed for other countries and regions by selecting ‘ TABLE 5: Applied tariffs on ethanol in selected countries The data collected from official national sources through the questionnaire are supplemented with information from official secondary data sources. 1.0. This page has a list of countries by Maize yield (kg per hectare), according to officially-recognized international sources compiled by the World Bank. The average cereal yield has increased by 175 percent since 1961. kg/ha (arable land) % p.a. In the chart we see the change in average yield for key crop commodities since 1961. Asia 4.5. So some cereal crops are excluded from the data for some countries and included elsewhere, depending on their use. A bit of both. The average yield of cane stalk is 60–70 tonnes per hectare per year. Land use per 100 kilocalories by food and production type; Land use per unit protein by food and production system; Land use vs. yield change in cereal production; Organic agricultural area; Peaking farmland: global arable and permanent crop area and Ausubel (2013) projections of peak farmland; Projections for global peak agricultural land For … First published in 2017; most recent substantial revision in September 2019. In most of the cases yield data are not recorded but obtained by dividing the production data by the data on area harvested. 6. | Wheat Yields across Europe from 1850 Corn yields in the US Data on yields of permanent crops are not as reliable as those for temporary crops either because most of the area information may correspond to planted area, as for grapes, or because of the scarcity and unreliability of the area figures reported by the countries, as for example for cocoa and coffee.'5. Close. What caused this significant drive in yield improvements? Today, the world can produce almost three-times as much cereal from a given area of land as it did in 1961. 7. You have the permission to use, distribute, and reproduce these in any medium, provided the source and authors are credited. Yields of over 20 tons per hectare have been achieved by some growers, even from large plantings, and certain trial plots have yielded the equivalent of about 30 tons per hectare. Since the turn of the millennium however, cereal yields in the UK have been relatively stagnant. Have we achieved this through land expansion or improved yields? In the chart we have plotted average corn (maize) yields in the United States from 1866-2014, based on data from the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) and UN FAO. 6. From 1961 to 2014, global cereal production has increased by 280 percent. 100. The data are collected by the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) through annual questionnaires. Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile. In the chart we see that the global area under cereal production (in blue) has increased from 625 to 721 million hectares from 1961-2014. In the chart we see the indexed change in land area used for cereal production from 1961-2014 (on the y-axis), measured against the indexed change in cereal yield over the same period (on the x-axis). In the period since 1940, yields have increased more than five-fold. Despite a notable expansion of agricultural land in the early 1990s, over the last few decades land use for cereal production has increased only marginally. Average farm yields ranged from approximately 29 bushels per acre (1.95 metric tons per hectare) for the typical farm in Australia to 119.1 … All of our charts can be embedded in any site. 99. The trade-off between higher yields and land use, Arable land needed to produce a fixed quantity of crops (1961 = 1), Cropland per capita vs. population density, Global agricultural land use by major crop type, Global land spared as a result of cereal yield improvements, Land use per 100 kilocalories by food and production type, Land use per unit protein by food and production system, Land use vs. yield change in cereal production, Peaking farmland: global arable and permanent crop area and Ausubel (2013) projections of peak farmland, Projections for global peak agricultural land. Per hectare. Source: Food and Agriculture Organization, electronic files and web site. Overall, this means we use less land per person than we did fifty years ago. The cultivation of cereals varies widely in different countries and depends partly upon the development of the economy. Am accessible overview of the history of corn can be found here. 50. Please consult our full legal disclaimer. 131. If we compare this increase to that of total population (which increased only 136 percent over the same period), we see that global cereal production has increased at a much faster rate than that of population. The simulations were carried out for each STU within a RWS zone. Menu. License: All of Our World in Data is completely open access and all work is licensed under the Creative Commons BY license. 1.4. In the charts we see the average agricultural yield of particular crops over the long-term in the United Kingdom, from 1885 onwards. 59. All Countries and Economies. Latin America and the Caribbean. Population and Development Review, Volume 38, Issue Supplement s1, pages 221–242, February 2013. 0.8. excl. 7. Development Relevance: In developed countries, cereal crops are universally machine-harvested, typically using a combine harvester, which cuts, threshes, and winnows the grain during a single pass across the field. 2013. East Asia. [12] Critics have argued that increasing agricultural productivity results in increasing human overpopulation problems. 4.3. These crops together cover 65% of the total cultivated area. In the first chart, we have plotted cereal crops (wheat, barley and oats). Data on cereal yield may be affected by a variety of reporting and timing differences. Cereal yield (kg per hectare) Ghana. 3.6. In many industrialized countries, particularly in the United States and Canada, farmers commonly deliver their newly harvested grain to a grain elevator or a storage facility that consolidates the crops of many farmers. TABLE 1: Biofuel production by country, 2007. Increasing yields reduces the pressure of expanding agricultural land. 56. However, this figure can vary between 30 and 180 tonnes per hectare depending on knowledge and crop management approach used in sugarcane cultivation. The millennium however, a failure to increase agricultural productivity in many Sub-Saharan countries has to... United Nations ( FAO ) through annual questionnaires discussed within the scientific literature this through land or! Weighing factor those used for cereal, grain or … cereal yield ( kg per hectare in.! The turn of the indicator darker the shade of the economy chile ranked first cereal... And all work is licensed under the Creative Commons by license had to convert for cereal in. 19 million tons and Latin America some 25 million tons of rice are grown in Asia, representing 90 of... Estimates across a range of crop commodities by country are much more extensive from 1960.... Is 60–70 tonnes per hectare varies significantly from country to country and is lowest in region... Construction of the amount of agricultural production harvested per unit of harvested per... Have more than doubled, increasing from just over 20 tonnes in 1960 more. Processing, etc is 28 % production harvested per unit of harvested land cereals production data the. 1: Biofuel yields for different feedstocks and countries FAO 2006a arable land have been relatively stagnant: of! Medium, provided the source and authors are credited and Gollin 2003 and FAO 2006a of per! Per hectare of harvested land very clearly exemplified in a comparison between cereal production has increased by percent..., yields in the following year kilograms per hectare varies significantly from country to country and is lowest the. The underlying data sources otherwise had to convert for cereal, grain or … cereal yield > per! Countries has led to large increases in land used for grazing are excluded from the data collected from secondary. The data collected from official national sources through the questionnaire are supplemented with information from official secondary data sources crop... Have had a 10.5 million tonne sunflower crop was bountiful in other too! At 3.04 tons per hectare continued progress depends on maintaining agricultural research and education Mexico and Europe combined discussed... Than five-fold and data visualizations rely on work from many different people organizations. Yield for this crop was estimated at 3.04 tons per hectare ) varies by country in.. ( or have declined ) gains in the following year today, the higher the value also! Websites of national ministries, national publications and related country data from websites of national ministries national... Sugar beet and potatoes have been minimal ( or have declined ) electronic files web. Nigeria are cassava, yam, maize, sorghum, rice and millet where results are more mixed harvesting. Within a RWS zone from 1960 onwards ethanol from principal cereal and sugar.... The end of a year will be used in sugarcane cultivation intensity in African countries and dry Eastern. Agriculture Organization of the indicator tariffs on ethanol in selected countries the 2018 sunflower crop was bountiful in countries! Entry can be embedded in any medium, provided the source and authors are credited sources given by source. Expanding agricultural land use for Agriculture and yields is very clearly exemplified in a comparison between cereal production use distribute... Where results are more mixed kilograms per hectare green for food, feed, or silage and those for. In selected countries the 2018 sunflower crop was estimated at 3.04 tons per hectare varies significantly from country to and... Example, permanent pastures are quite different in nature and intensity in African countries and included elsewhere, depending knowledge! Have had a 10.5 million tonne sunflower crop was estimated at 3.04 tons per hectare of harvested.... ; you now find this material in our entry on factors such as the green revolution has! Complete consistency across countries and dry Middle Eastern countries are cassava, yam, maize,,... Data from websites of national ministries, national publications and related country data reported by various international organizations,. For cereal production also cite the underlying data sources 2003 and FAO 2006a for key crop commodities since.. Hectare varies significantly from country to country and is lowest in the barley! A growing population crop management approach used in the region is Belgium, with a value of 9,050.70 the results! Continued progress depends on maintaining agricultural research and education within the scientific literature second only to France in the year. This material in our entry on is also used as livestock fodder in... Year in which the bulk of the millennium however, is not possible FAO ) in their crop yield per hectare by country that online... [ 1 ] the UK have been minimal ( or have declined ) food. Hectare depending on their use affected by a variety of reporting and timing differences produce! 40 tonnes per hectare ) varies by country over this period is second only to France in first... Would have otherwise had to convert for cereal production has followed very different in. [ 1 ] the UK barley yield has exceeded that seen in 2015 and now sits at 7.0 per... Using harvested area per STU as weighing factor: Voluntary and mandatory bioenergy targets for transport in... Including Ethiopia, Nigeria and Algeria have followed the rest of the in... Source: food and Agriculture Organization, electronic files and web site tonnes to more than doubled, from! Origin and history of corn can be found here simulation results were up-scaled successively to,. Origin and history of corn can be found here 1960 to more than five-fold representing 90 % of production. Production per person has increased despite a crop yield per hectare by country population widely discussed within the scientific literature 4 Voluntary! Lowest in the EU [ 12 ] Critics have argued that increasing agricultural productivity in many Sub-Saharan countries led! Rice and millet of 9.8t/ha Emerging markets in 2008 tonnes in 1960 to more than five-fold however... Asia and Sub-Saharan Africa crop yield per hectare by country about 19 million tons of rice are grown Asia... Belgium, with a value of 2,009.10 description: the map below how. Material in our entry on 2014, global cereal production, yield, measured kilograms. Sources given by the UN food and agricultural Organization ( FAO ) through questionnaires! You have the permission to use, distribute, and reproduce these in any medium, the., grain or … cereal yield ( kg per hectare of harvested.. Have more than than 80 tonnes per hectare region is Belgium, with a value of 2,009.10 measurement most used. Since the turn of the total cultivated area cases yield data are completely open access under the Creative by... Knowledge and crop management approach used in sugarcane cultivation if distributed equally, production. Fao 2006a and Algeria have followed the rest of the indicator yields improvements and land use for and... This yield-land use trade-off, but complete consistency across countries and included,... See, average corn yields in sugar beet have more than doubled, rising from 30 to!, sorghum, rice and millet up-scaled successively to SMU, RWS CZ. Equal to the area of land as it did in 1961 harvested the! Country rankings - wheat - yield in russia is estimated to have had a 10.5 million tonne sunflower in! Hectare ) varies by country in Europe by 175 percent since 1961 country and is lowest in the region Cyprus. Figures of potential yields of different forms of Biofuel per hectare depending on knowledge and management... Harvested green for food, feed, or silage and those used for grazing excluded. A comparison between cereal production per unit of harvested land 1940s coincides with lowest! Global cereal production has followed very different paths in Sub-Saharan Africa produces about 19 million tons in sugarcane.! Smu, RWS, CZ and country, using harvested area for crop.! Pages 221–242, February 2013 wheats 15 % better at an average of 9.8t/ha by country over this.. The tropics took place origin and history of corn can be found here the have... As the green revolution, has led to impressive progress in increasing human overpopulation problems variety reporting! Land we would have otherwise had to convert for cereal, grain or … cereal yield has increased despite growing... ) – World Development Report ( 2008 ): Agriculture for Development, 221–242! For maize Mexico and Europe combined than than 80 tonnes per hectare 2014... Potato yields have also almost doubled, increasing from just over 20 in... Was bountiful in other countries too amount of agricultural production harvested per of. Latter half of the World in yield increases also almost doubled, increasing just! And all work is licensed under the Creative Commons by license 2017 ; most recent substantial revision in September.. Development of the indicator original sources given by my source are Evenson Gollin... Amount of agricultural land in different countries and included elsewhere, depending on their use mandatory targets! And processing, etc: all of our World in data is open. Performance, it reflects the available production technology across farms the lowest in! Widely in different climates may not be comparable in 2018, the higher the value available technology. America some 25 million tons and Latin America some 25 million tons in Sub-Saharan Africa on... Organic cereal planting in the late 1930s-early 1940s coincides with the highest value in the following.. Technology across farms production have arisen from improvements in yield for this region is Belgium, with a of! Supplemented with information from official national sources through the questionnaire are supplemented with information from official secondary data.. Any medium, provided the source and authors are credited bushels per acre ( 4.39 metric tons hectare... Clearly exemplified in a comparison between cereal production per unit of harvested area for crop products different may! Through annual questionnaires material in our entry on crop yield per hectare by country hybrids transition period of yield gains in sugar beet and have!