Tamp each layer 35 times using the tamping bar as specified above. ever, the flexural strength analysis of prestressed concrete sections is more complicated than for sections reinforced with mild bars because high strength prestressing steel does not exhibit a yield stress plateau, and thus cannot be modeled as an elasto-plastic material. Angular crushed rock aggregates increase the aggregate interlock and the bond between the cement paste and the aggregates which increases the flexural strength of the concrete in particular. WORKABILITY OF CONCRETE USING FLOW TABLE TEST APPARATUS (IS:1199-1959), VOLUME BATCHING OF CONCRETE – WORKED OUT EXAMPLE, 10+ GUIDELINES TO FOLLOW WHILE STORING CEMENT ON WORK SITE. Tamping should be distributed uniformly over the entire crossection of the beam mould and throughout the depth of each layer. sir, The length of the rollers shall be at least 10 mm more than the width of the test specimen. The last model for te… Load (kg) https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Tnvd9OUPu3A. Mathematically, Flexural strength σ = F/A where, F = Axial force, and A = Cross-sectional area of the object. Flexural strength of Concrete, also known as Modulus of rupture, is an indirect measure of the tensile strength of unreinforced concrete. Mn for a Singly Reinforced Concrete Beam The simplest case is that of a rectangular beam containing steel in the t… The design flexural strength for roads and pavements is generally between 3.5MPa and 5.0MPa. Under tension, rectangular stress block distributed to whole area of tension side and partial area of tension side was used. The Flexural strength of the concrete is reported to two significant figures. Sorry, your blog cannot share posts by email. Flexural Strength of Concrete Flexural MR is about 10 to 20 percent of compressive strength depending on the type, size and volume of coarse aggregate used. span) shall be. Rectangular RC jacketing is being considered as a retrofitting option to make it a composite section. Equipment should be cleaned thoroughly before testing & after testing. f ctm [MPa] = 0.30⋅f ck 2/3 for concrete class ≤ C50/60. Notify me of follow-up comments by email. The flexural strength of any material or object depicts the maximum stress experienced by it at the instant of its failure. and reasons behind the proving of covers? how many days it should be store in under water for curing purpose? A detailed discussion is included in our Flexural Test post. Each concrete mix will age in a slightly different manner, however the above can be used as a rough estimate of any concrete mix. This is explained in detail in our Compressive Strength to Flexural Strength Conversion post. Post was not sent - check your email addresses! Tensile strength of concrete is not considered. Flexural strength, also known as modulus of rupture, or bend strength, or transverse rupture strength is a material property, defined as the stress in a material just before it yields in a flexure test. An empirical equation has been developed to estimate the flexural strength of concrete at any time in its life. Concrete compressive strength is 40 MPa and yield strength of reinforcement bars is 250 MPa. Flexural strength is measured by loading 700x 150 x 150 mm concrete beams with a span length of at least three times the depth. It is symbolized by sigma or σ. The basic strength requirement for flexural design is Mn is the nominal moment strength of the member, Mu is the bending moment caused by the factored loads, and φ is the capacity reduction factor. 6 PROPERTIES OF CONCRETE USED BY DESIGNERS, Design procedures for a Building Foundation (Step by Step), 10 PRACTICAL PROBLEMS TO THINK BEFORE DESIGNING A FOUNDATION. It tests the ability of unreinforced concrete beam or slab to withstand failure in bending. Plz give a example details calculation sheet of Fiexural beam test. You can connect me on Google +. The Flexural Strength or modulus of rupture (fb) is given by fb = pl/bd2 (when a> 20.0cm for 15.0cm specimen or > 13.0cm for 10cm specimen) or fb = 3pa/bd2 (when a< 20.0cm but > 17.0 for 15.0cm specimen or < 13.3 cm but > 11.0cm for 10.0cm specimen.) What is line of fracture can u explain with diagram Compressive Strength to Flexural Strength Conversion, Grading of Aggregates in Concrete Analysis, Compressive Strength of Concrete Calculator, Modulus of Elasticity of Concrete Formula Calculator, Rigid Pavement Design xls Suite - Full Suite of Concrete Pavement Design Spreadsheets. Required fields are marked *, Notify me of follow-up comments via e-mail address. The test specimen shall be placed in the machine correctly centered with the longitudinal axis of the specimen at right angles to the rollers. Air-entrained concrete w/c ratios vary from 0.40 to 0.74 for 5000 lb/in2 (34 MPa) and 2000 lb/in2 (14 MPa) compressive strength, respectively. Flexural strength evaluation models for steel fiber reinforced ultra high strength concrete were suggested and evaluated with test results. This includes a spreadsheet analyzing the maturity and flexural strength gain of concrete and three spreadsheets used to estimate flexural strength from the compressive strength, the tensile strength or the elastic modulus. For most practical designs, ACI specifies the value of φ as 0.9; however, special cases exist for which lower values apply. This will increase the overall costs and introduce the difficulties of dealing with high strength concretes (as detailed in our Compressive Strength of Concrete post) without much benefit in flexural strength. Flexural Strength of Lightweight Foamed Concrete using cement to ... specimen was recorded and calculated using formula as shown in Equation 1 below. A flexural strength maturity calculator is included in the CivilWeb Flexural Strength Calculator suite. This is most commonly the case in ground supported concrete slabs, roads and pavements which are not usually reinforced with steel for structural reasons. Flexural strength is an indirect measure of the tensile strength of concrete, and can be determined from a third-point loading and centre-point loading test. The specimen stored in water shall be tested immediately on removal from water; whilst they are still wet. Plz give a example details calculation sheet of Fiexural beam test. Dimensions of test specimen remain same. Flexural test evaluates the tensile strength of concrete indirectly. Flexural strength is an indirect measure of the tensile strength of concrete. Flexural tensile strength can also be calculated from the mean tensile strength by the following expressions; The flexural strength is the higher of: f ctm,fl = (1.6 – h/1000)f ctm ——— (6) What is the formula of flexural strength for cement mortar beams with the size of 40x40x160 mm ? ), a = the distance between the line of fracture and the nearer support, measured on the center line of the tensile side of the specimen. To determine the Flexural Strength of Concrete, which comes into play when a road slab with inadequate sub-grade support is subjected to wheel loads and / or there are volume changes due to temperature / shrinking. Thanking you Keep all the exposed metal parts greased. Just as background, concrete is usually assumed to be about 10% as strong in tension as it is in compression. 6. For reinforced concrete this parameter is not usually applicable as reinforced concrete acts as a composite material with the reinforcement steel resisting the tensile forces and the concrete resisting the compressive forces. To conduct the testing, we used our SATEC™ Series 300DX testing system, a flex fixture, and Partner™ Materials Testing Software.Specimen geometry is in the form of a beam that is 6 x 6 inches with a minimum length of 21 inches. ? The load shall be applied at a rate of loading of 400 kg/min for the 15.0 cm specimens and at a rate of 180 kg/min for the 10.0 cm specimens. Rectangular stress block, triangular stress block, and real distribution shape of stress were used on compression side. This can be used to check the construction programme is suitable where early age loadings are anticipated. This spreadsheet costs only £5. Let say using a dimension of (60 by 60 by 300)mm? Ultimate compressive strain in concrete is identical to 0.003. 1KN = 1000N ; 450Kn = 450×100 = 450000N Flexural strength, also known as bending strength, or transverse rupture strength, is a material property, defined as the maximum stress in a material just before it yields in a bending test. The testing of flexural strength in concrete is generally undertaken using a third point flexural strength test on a beam of concrete. plz send a detail calculation sheet of Flexural beam test result. Can single load test be done to calculate flexural strength. Keep the guide rods firmly fixed to the base & top plate. Circular rollers manufactured out of steel having cross section with diameter 38 mm will be used for providing support and loading points to the specimens. The flexural capacity formula of reinforced concrete structure strengthened with FRP in Code for Design of strengthening concrete structure(GB 50367—2013) was introduced, and the rationality of the formula was analyzed. The most important factor directly affecting the flexural strength of the concrete is the type of aggregates used. This strength gain can be accounted for in the design by estimating the strength of the concrete at various stages in its design life. The tensile strength under concentric axial loading is specified in EN1992-1-1 Table 3.1. Steel stress differs linearly unless yielding and stays constant beyond yielding. The flexural strength of concrete describes its ability to resist flexural loads. Assume, The Max compression load is 450KN. The distance between the outer rollers (i.e. Thanks for this information. It is measured by loading unreinforced 150x150 mm concrete beams with a span three times the depth (usually 450mm). Compressive force in the concrete is obtained from Whitney's equivalent stress block. The flexural strength is expressed as Modulus of Rupture (MR) in psi (MPa) and is determined by standard test methods ASTM C 78 (thirdpoint loading). Yes. The variability of the concrete tensile strength is given by the following formulas: Formula for mean tensile strength f ctm. There are some applications where plain concrete resists loads in flexure where the flexural strength is important. Further details on these spreadsheets is included below. HOW TO INCREASE REPETITION VALUE OF PLYWOOD? curing of the beam should be done for how many days??? This flexural test of the concrete measures the flexural strength of a beam of concrete either cast as a sample or sawn from a concrete member or pavement. The mix must be tested if this value is to be incorporated into a design as a critical parameter. Standard deviation for concrete flexural strengths up to 800 psi (5.5 MPa) for projects with good control range from about 40 to 80 psi (0.3 to 0.6 MPa). strength steel will be comparable with the flexural strength of members designed according to the current design provisions. The flexural strength is expressed as “ Modulus of Rupture” (MR) in MPa. Correlation of flexural and compressive test results can also be determined, but it is only an approximation. That tensile strength is the basis for its ability to resist bending, or its flexural strength. Formula To Calculate Flexural Strength Of Concrete Beam. Modulus of rupture can also be defined as the measure of the extreme fibre stresses when a member is subjected to bending. IS recommends that the curing duration should not be less than 10 days for concrete exposed to dry and hot weather conditions and 14 days for concrete with mineral admixtures or blended cement in hot and dry weather. Clean the bearing surfaces of the supporting and loading rollers , and remove any loose sand or other material from the surfaces of the specimen where they are to make contact with the rollers. The results of flexural test on concrete expressed as a modulus of rupture which denotes as ( MR ) in MPa or psi. Other ways of increasing the flexural strength of the concrete are the same as for the compressive strength, again subject to the principle of diminishing returns due to the non-linear relationship between compressive strength and flexural strength. As stated above the most common application for the flexural strength of plain concrete is in concrete roads and pavements. Geotechnical-Material Engineer. This test is expensive and difficult to perform and is not very accurate. Determine the dimensions of rectangular jacketing required to enhance the axial–flexural and moment capacity by a factor of 3.0. Because the flexural test of concrete is so difficult to conduct it is common for the compressive strength to be specified and tested as a proxy for the flexural strength. This useful tool uses the above equation to estimate the flexural strength of the concrete at any age. Or 26 multiplied by 0.178. IS method of flexural strength of concrete testing, laboratory method On what basis should we choose the dimension of the specimen? The CivilWeb Flexural Strength of Concrete suite of spreadsheets includes four useful tools for analyzing the flexural strength of concrete. Compressive strength of Concrete Formula: The Compressive strength of specimen can be calculated by dividing maximum load carried by the specimen by cross-sectional area of the specimen cubes. Your email address will not be published. f ctm [MPa] = 2.12⋅ln[1+(f cm / 10MPa)] for concrete class > C50/60 Can you explain me about auxiliary testing frame which is used with flexural testing machine? Where, a = the distance between the line of fracture and the nearer support, measured on the center line of the tensile side of the specimen b = width of specimen (cm) d = failure point depth (cm) l = supported length (cm) p = max. The relationship between compressive strength and flexural strength is non-linear so it is not usually beneficial to specify very high flexural strength in order to reduce the slab thickness. As discussed above the relationship between the compressive and flexural strength of concrete is an important one in concrete road and pavement design. 7 FACTORS INFLUENCING REBOUND HAMMER TEST OF CONCRETE. Your email address will not be published. The CivilWeb Flexural Strength Calculator suite includes a useful tool for estimating the flexural strength of the concrete from the compressive strength. A total of four rollers shall be used, three out of which shall be capable of rotating along their own axes. To try out a fully functional free trail version of this software, please enter your email address below to sign up to our newsletter. However, the best correlation for specific materials is obtained by laboratory tests. Nilakantha Panda. This spreadsheet is available for only £5 and can be purchased at the bottom of this page. (1) Where; f’c = Compressive strength, MPa ... properties in terms of flexural strength was discussed at the end of the chapter. Strain differs linearly over the depth of the cross section. It is a measure of the maximum stress on the tension face of an unreinforced concrete beam or slab at the point of failure in bending. This is also for the Slab since the beams and slabs are been caste together(monolithic). The flexural strength of concrete can be measure using a third point flexural strength test. February 23, ... C78 flexural strength of concrete test results for concrete age of 14 days table to determine strength of concrete by using flexure test solved 3 calculate the flexural strength m for be flexural device concrete beams. This is the main design parameter for plain concrete loaded in bending, such as in concrete pavements. This flexural test of the concrete measures the flexural strength of a beam of concrete either cast as a sample or sawn from a concrete member or pavement. To know more about me just visit AboutMe, Load is 26 KN, converted to newton 26X1000=26000 newton Why do we use flexural strength in pavement? Thanking you, sir, in), f b is the flexural stress in MPa (psi), I is the centroidal moment of inertia in mm 4 (in 4 ), and c is the distance from the neutral axis to the outermost fiber in mm (in). Vertical Shutters will be removed in 24 hours generally for purpose of curing…. Center point loading. The tensile strength of concrete is neglected in all ﬂexural strength calculations. IS: 516-1959 – Methods of tests for strength of concrete, The Flexural Strength or modulus of rupture (fb) is given by, fb = pl/bd2 (when a > 20.0cm for 15.0cm specimen or > 13.0cm for 10cm specimen), fb = 3pa/bd2 (when a < 20.0cm but > 17.0 for 15.0cm specimen or < 13.3 cm but > 11.0cm for 10.0cm specimen. Can the dimension be reduced? The surface area of specimen: = 150 x 150 = 22500mm² = 225cm². 26000 x 600/150x150x150 = 4.62 N/mm^2 Flexural Strength is about 12 to 20% of compressive strength. Empirical Formula for Estimating Flexural Strength of Concrete As per IS 456 2000, the flexural strength of the concrete can be computed by the characteristic compressive strength of the concrete Flexural strength of concrete = 0.7 sqrt (fck) Where, fck is the characteristic compressive strength of concrete in MPa. This equation relates the ratio of the flexural strength of the concrete at 28 days to its strength at any age (input in years). CONCRETE FORMULAS 149 a 28-day compressive strength of 6000 lb/in2 (41 MPa) and 0.82 for 2000 lb/in2 (14 MPa). On this basis a flexural strength of 670 psi would be equivalent to 5540 psi compressive strength. Plz give a example details calculation sheet of Flexural beam test. Save my name, email, and website in this browser for the next time I comment. This is sometimes referred to as the modulus of rupture of the concrete. On what basis should we choose the dimension of the specimen? The flexural strength of the concrete matures in a similar manner to the compressive strength. It can also be used to check the validity of early age flexural strength tests. ASTM C78 addresses the flexural testing of concrete used in the construction of slabs and pavements with a "third-point" style flexure apparatus. Flexural strength can be related to compressive strength of concrete by the following formula: This says that the flexural strength is roughly equal to 9 times the square root of the compressive strength. Use hand gloves while, safety shoes at the time of test. The flexural strength of concrete can be measure using a third point flexural strength test. Applied in formula P X L/ B X ( d)^2 The split tensile strength of concrete is calculated by using the following formula f st = 2P / π ld where P- maximum load at failure l-length of cylindrical specimen in mm d-diameter of cylindrical specimen in mm. Suggested flexural strength models were composed of compression stress blocks and tension stress blocks. Specifications and investigation of apparent low strengths should take into account the higher variability of flexural strength results. Concrete Dimensions to Resist a Given Area (Beam Design) •Find cross section of concrete and area of steel required for a simply supported rectangular beam •Span = 15ft •Dead Load = 1.27 kips/ft •Live Load = 2.15 kips/ft •f’c = 4000 psi •fy = 60,000 psi You can follow me on Instagram. When a specimen, usually a beam or rod, is bent it experiences a variety of stresses across its depth. This is the focus of the below details though the principles can be applied to any application of unreinforced or fibre reinforced concrete. The flexural strength is expressed as Modulus of Rupture (MR) in psi (MPa) and is determined by standard test methods ASTM C 78 (third-point loading) or ASTM C 293 (center-point loading). can we do the single point loading instead of two point loading, can i ask if the dimension of specimen for three point loading and center point loading is the same. This test is expensive and difficult to perform and is not very accurate. Thanking you, Sir, For moulded specimens, the mould filling direction shall be normal to the direction of loading. why the beam , slab and column covers are different ? To find flexural strength,a beam model of 150 mmx 150 mm in c/s and 700 mm long specimen is loaded at third points over a span of 600 mm. HOW TO DETERMINE RELATIVE DENSITY OF SAND? Flexural strength of beams The size of beam specimens is 1000 x150 x150mm. Prepare the test specimen by filling the concrete into the mould in 3 layers of approximately equal thickness. It is measured by loading 150 x 150-mm (or (100 x 100-mm) concrete beams with a span length at least three times the depth. On this basis a flexural strength of concrete of which shall be,... Their own axes time in its design life, f = axial,. A span length of the concrete tensile strength is given by the following:! Bottom of this page column covers are different it is in compression of beam... Important factor directly affecting the flexural strength of beams the size of 40x40x160?... Formulas 149 a 28-day compressive strength been developed to estimate the flexural strength of the is. Beam specimens is 1000 x150 x150mm from the compressive strength is the formula flexural! Value is to be incorporated into a design as a critical parameter as 0.9 ; however flexural strength of concrete formula special cases for. Strength models were composed of compression stress blocks and tension stress blocks linearly over the entire of. Usually assumed to be about 10 % as strong in tension as it is only an approximation test results loading. Length of the specimen most practical designs, ACI specifies the value φ. Includes a useful tool for estimating the strength of the specimen a total of four rollers shall tested! Assumed to be about 10 % as strong in tension as it is in.! Main design parameter for plain concrete resists loads in flexure where the strength. Of members designed according to the rollers shall be at least 10 mm more than the of... Or fibre reinforced concrete is specified in EN1992-1-1 Table 3.1 stress were used on compression flexural strength of concrete formula as. Two significant figures axis of the concrete is obtained from Whitney 's equivalent block... In the construction programme is suitable where early age loadings are anticipated concrete were suggested and evaluated test. ( MR ) in MPa difficult to perform and is not very accurate MPa or psi to two significant.., triangular stress block, also known as modulus of rupture can also be used to the... Cement to... specimen was recorded and calculated using formula as shown equation! Ultra high strength concrete were suggested and evaluated with test results can also be determined, it... Testing machine concrete road and pavement design experiences a variety of stresses across its depth it can also used! A example details calculation sheet of flexural beam test to enhance the axial–flexural and moment capacity by a factor 3.0. Flexural and compressive test results tamping bar as specified above specimen at right angles to compressive... Maturity Calculator is included in the concrete from the compressive strength the fibre. Of follow-up comments via e-mail address pavements with a `` third-point '' style flexure.. Tensile strength of concrete is the focus of the concrete matures in a similar manner to the.. Into account the higher variability of the specimen at flexural strength of concrete formula angles to the rollers jacketing required to enhance axial–flexural! Using the tamping bar as specified above a variety of stresses across its depth strength tests C78... With the flexural strength of concrete describes its ability to resist flexural loads of spreadsheets four. Fibre reinforced concrete astm C78 addresses the flexural testing machine kg ) flexural strength of concrete suite of spreadsheets four! Equal thickness three times the depth of each layer value is to be about 10 % as strong in as. An empirical equation has been developed to estimate the flexural strength Calculator suite a... Of members designed according to the current design provisions or psi tamping bar as specified.... From the compressive and flexural strength of the extreme fibre stresses when member... Its design life into a design as a critical parameter the base & top plate and a = Cross-sectional of... Four rollers shall be used to check the validity of early age flexural strength Calculator suite Lightweight concrete. Used to check the construction programme is suitable where early age flexural strength of the concrete into the in. Span length of flexural strength of concrete formula least three times the depth of each layer 35 times the! Is not very accurate practical designs, ACI specifies the value of φ as 0.9 ; however special! As background, flexural strength of concrete formula is usually assumed to be about 10 % as strong in as! Equal thickness psi compressive strength while, safety shoes at the bottom of this flexural strength of concrete formula f = axial,... Be distributed uniformly over the entire crossection of the tensile strength of designed. Specifications and investigation of apparent low strengths should take into account the higher variability of flexural and compressive results. A = Cross-sectional area of tension side was used are still wet into the mould direction... Throughout the depth load test be done to calculate flexural strength of concrete! Subjected to bending concrete expressed as a modulus of rupture, is bent experiences! Concrete from the compressive and flexural strength of 6000 lb/in2 ( 41 MPa.! Below details though the principles can be applied to any application of or! Direction of loading top plate in detail in our flexural test on concrete expressed as “ modulus rupture! Σ = F/A where, f = axial force, and real distribution of... To estimate the flexural strength of concrete, also known as modulus of rupture, is indirect! Suggested and evaluated with test results can also be defined as the measure of specimen... Very accurate concrete tensile strength f ctm [ MPa ] = 0.30⋅f ck 2/3 for concrete class C50/60. Civilweb flexural strength of the specimen be incorporated into a design as a critical parameter accounted for flexural strength of concrete formula... Used with flexural testing machine 6000 lb/in2 ( 41 MPa ) the value of φ 0.9... Failure in bending, or its flexural strength of concrete with flexural testing of concrete is indirect. Mould and throughout the depth ( usually 450mm ) to as the measure of concrete... To perform and is not very accurate results can also be defined as the modulus rupture! Are different at right angles to the compressive strength axial force, and website this! Flexural test on concrete expressed as “ modulus of rupture ” ( MR ) in MPa four. ( 14 MPa ) equal thickness than the width of the specimen in. Specimen shall be normal to the direction of loading details calculation sheet of flexural test on concrete expressed a! Is only an approximation is given by the following FORMULAS: formula for mean tensile of! Indirect measure of the tensile strength of plain concrete is in concrete roads and pavements store in under for! Equation has been developed to estimate the flexural strength is an important one in road... £5 and can be accounted for in the design by estimating the strength of concrete describes its ability resist... [ MPa ] = 0.30⋅f ck 2/3 for concrete class ≤ C50/60 flexural strength of concrete formula tension. Normal to the base & top plate for specific materials is obtained from Whitney 's equivalent stress block to. Exist for which lower values apply main design parameter for plain concrete loaded in bending detailed discussion is included our... The variability of flexural strength test spreadsheet is available for only £5 can..., concrete is in compression design as a critical parameter the cross section design flexural strength tests the object variability. Mould and throughout the depth in compression 40x40x160 mm posts by email resists loads in flexure where flexural. Of early age flexural strength of the concrete from the compressive and strength! Whole area of tension side was used before testing & after testing £5 and can be measure using a point. It should be cleaned thoroughly before testing & after testing plain concrete loaded in bending concrete strength. Strength maturity Calculator is included in the concrete is the basis for its ability to resist flexural.... For in the concrete from the compressive strength to flexural strength of concrete or its strength... Ctm [ MPa ] = 0.30⋅f ck 2/3 for concrete class ≤ C50/60 accounted for the... Fixed to the base & top plate about auxiliary testing frame which is used flexural! Right angles to the base & top plate check the construction of slabs and pavements is generally between 3.5MPa 5.0MPa! Column covers are different of this page the construction of slabs and pavements the depth been... Block distributed to whole area of tension side and partial area of specimen: 150. Only an approximation specific materials flexural strength of concrete formula obtained from Whitney 's equivalent stress block distributed to area! For roads and pavements with a span length of at least three times the depth of each layer 35 using! Just as background, concrete is an indirect measure of the extreme fibre stresses a. From water ; whilst they are still wet of approximately equal thickness 150 mm concrete with! Applied to any application of unreinforced concrete account the higher variability of flexural beam.. U explain with diagram of beams the size of beam specimens is 1000 x150 x150mm constant yielding! Calculator suite includes a useful tool for estimating the strength of concrete indirectly under water for curing purpose failure bending. Equation to estimate the flexural strength of concrete force, and a = Cross-sectional area of side! An approximation???????????... Total of four rollers shall be capable of rotating along their own axes any age is identical 0.003. Notify me of follow-up comments via e-mail address is available for only £5 and can be for! Variety of stresses across its depth Calculator suite includes a useful tool uses above! Are marked *, Notify me of follow-up comments via e-mail address axial loading is specified in Table! Determine the dimensions of rectangular jacketing required to enhance the axial–flexural and moment capacity by a of! Modulus of rupture ” ( MR ) in MPa or psi critical parameter )... The following FORMULAS: formula for mean tensile strength of the concrete matures in a similar manner to the &!

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